Paleoceanography of the Champlain Sea

The Champlain Sea was an epicontinental, ephemeral sea of glacial isostatic origin that extended west of Ottawa at the end of the last glaciation. Sea waters that flooded a basin of about 55000km2 that occupied parts of the St. Lawrence, Ottawa and modern Lake Champlain lowlands. Deep valleys along the edge of the Laurentian Highlands, such as the Gatineau and the Saint-Maurice were occupied by waters which were relatively fresh due to the influx of abundant glacial meltwaters. The areal extent of the marine basin underwent changes that were controlled by three coveal and interdependant factors: 1) retreat of the ice sheet from the valley, 2) glacial isostatic recovery and 3) globally rising sea level. The elevation of the marin limit varies between 250m north of Montreal and 55m south of Lake Champlain. The marine limit is diachronic, with its age ranging from about 12ka to about 10.5ka.


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...and of course, where all this information originated from The Bibliography